The Fascinating Truth About What Scorpions Eat

If you’ve ever considered stepping off the beaten path of traditional pet ownership, you might have contemplated inviting a scorpion into your home. These intriguing, ancient arthropods can provide a captivating glimpse into a world vastly different from our own, but they also demand a certain level of knowledge and care.

Stepping into the role of a scorpion owner, you’re not just adopting a pet; you’re becoming a steward of a creature whose lineage dates back hundreds of millions of years. This responsibility carries with it a distinct set of requirements, intricacies, and indeed, a bit of adventure.

Crucial to this journey is understanding the dietary needs of your scorpion. Grasping what your new companion likes to eat and discerning the appropriate feeding frequency are not mere trivialities. Instead, they are essential aspects of creating a suitable environment that respects the scorpion’s natural behaviors and needs.

Armed with this knowledge, you can ensure that your scorpion doesn’t merely survive, but thrives under your care. You can witness the beauty and resilience of a creature that has withstood the test of time, offering an intimate view into the compelling world of scorpionsOpens in a new tab. right within the confines of your home. Let’s delve deeper into what it takes to fulfill this unique role as a scorpion owner, beginning with their fascinating dietary habits.

What Food Do Scorpions Eat?

In their natural habitat scorpions hunt at night. Being nocturnal creatures, they spend daylight hours hiding, whether this is in their burrows, under rocks, or any other suitable hiding place.

Scorpions typically feed on things such as snails, spiders, crickets, centipedes, lizards, small rodents, and the like. They have also been known to eat small or baby snakes and even other scorpions. They only eat live prey and will dig out creatures such as insects, spiders, and lizards if necessary.

If you are keeping scorpions then it is obviously your job to provide the food they need. Most people elect to feed their scorpions with crickets, meal worms, or beetles as these are all easy to source. What you should be aware of however is that scorpions do not typically eat every day. A couple of crickets two or three times a week should suffice, for example. Juvenile scorpions do need to eat more often though, especially after molting.

As they are naturally nocturnal creatures, it is best to feed your scorpions at night. Also, remember that the food needs to be live when placed into the enclosure.

Here is a detailed table showing the common prey of scorpions both in the wild and in captivity:

Prey TypeIn The WildIn Captivity (As a Pet)Notes
InsectsYesYesInsects, including crickets, beetles, and various types of worms, form a significant part of a scorpion’s diet. They provide necessary proteins and fats.
SpidersYesYesSpiders are common prey for scorpions in the wild. In captivity, smaller spiders can be fed, but it’s less common due to potential risk to the scorpion.
Small MammalsYesNoIn the wild, scorpions may prey on small mammals like rodents. This is not commonly practiced in captivity due to size and risk of injury to the scorpion.
LizardsYesNoSmall lizards may be hunted by larger scorpions in the wild. Similar to small mammals, they are not usually fed to pet scorpions.
Small SnakesYesNoSome large scorpions are known to take down small snakes in the wild, but this is not recommended or common in captivity.
Other ScorpionsYesNoScorpions are known to be cannibalistic under certain circumstances. However, this behavior is not encouraged in captive conditions.
CentipedesYesNoIn the wild, some scorpions may prey on centipedes. Due to potential risk, they are not typically provided as food in captivity.
SnailsYesNoWhile snails can form part of a scorpion’s diet in the wild, they are not commonly used as a food source in captivity.
CricketsYesYesCrickets are a staple in the diet of captive scorpions due to their nutrient content and ease of procurement. They are also part of a scorpion’s natural diet in the wild.
MealwormsYesYesAnother common food source for captive scorpions, mealworms provide essential nutrients and are easy to ‘gut load’ with additional nutrients.

The prey given to a scorpion in captivity should ideally reflect their natural diet in the wild, ensuring they receive a balanced range of nutrients. However, care should be taken to ensure the prey items are safe and appropriate for the size and species of the scorpion.

Variations in Diet Based on Species

One of the most fascinating aspects of studying scorpions lies in their dietary diversity. This is significantly influenced by the species in question. There are over 1,500 species of scorpions worldwideOpens in a new tab., each with unique adaptations, including their feeding preferences.

The Emperor Scorpion (Pandinus imperator), for instance, a popular choice among pet owners, largely feeds on invertebratesOpens in a new tab. such as insects and spiders. Interestingly, they also occasionally supplement their diet with small vertebrates, including mice and lizards. This species has a preference for larger prey due to their robust physique and strong pincers.

On the other hand, we have the Arizona Bark Scorpion (Centruroides sculpturatus), the most venomous in North America. These scorpions have a proclivity towards soft-bodied prey like crickets, roaches, and beetles. Their venom, more potent than that of many other species, allows them to quickly immobilize their prey.

In contrast, the Desert Hairy Scorpion (Hadrurus arizonensis), also found in North America, exhibits a more carnivorous diet. They can often be seen hunting small lizards and even fellow scorpions.

Understanding these variations can be immensely useful for pet owners. This insight will help owners create a diet plan that closely mimics a scorpion’s natural dietary tendencies, contributing to their overall health and longevity. When researching the specific needs of their pet scorpions, owners should delve into the natural habitats and feeding behaviors of the scorpion species they plan to keep. This will not only ensure a well-fed pet but also one that is mentally stimulated and exhibits natural hunting behavior.

Size and Quantity of Prey Relative to Scorpion Size

Physical Characteristics and Prey Size

Scorpions are indeed a fascinating species. Their physical characteristics, particularly their size, play a pivotal role in determining the type and size of prey they can effectively capture and consume. Generally, scorpions are capable of subduing and consuming prey that is approximately equal to or even larger than their own size. However, it’s noteworthy that this may require a more considerable effort, increased venom usage, and might pose higher risks to the scorpion itself. Thus, in many instances, scorpions tend to prefer smaller prey, which can be swiftly and safely overpowered.

Scorpion Size and Prey Selection

The size of a scorpion is often directly proportional to its hunting prowess. Larger scorpions, such as the emperor scorpion, have been observed to hunt sizeable prey, including small lizards and rodents. On the other hand, smaller species generally target smaller insects, spiders, and occasionally, small invertebrates. Therefore, if you are caring for a pet scorpion, it’s essential to note that the size of your scorpion should guide your prey selection to ensure appropriate and safe feeding.

Feeding Capacity

As for the quantity of food, scorpions, despite their voracious predatory nature, do not require daily feedings. Their feeding capacity is remarkably flexible, owing to their ability to slow down their metabolism when food is scarce. A well-fed scorpion can go for days, weeks, and sometimes even months without feeding, depending on the size and nutritional value of its last meal. Larger scorpions often consume more substantial meals and hence can endure longer periods without feeding, while smaller ones may need relatively frequent feedings due to their lower food intake capacity.

Nevertheless, when food is abundant, and the opportunity presents itself, a scorpion may seize and store multiple prey at a time. This behavior is somewhat of an insurance policy against lean times and showcases the scorpion’s incredible adaptability to fluctuating food availability.

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How Do Scorpions Eat?

Scorpions are natural predators and built for hunting. They have eight legs with pincers at the tip of the front two. These pincers are known as pedipalps and are used to capture prey. For smaller prey, scorpions are adept at simply crushing it and eating it. If prey is large though, they will need to inject it with venom, which is administered through the stinger at the tip of their tail.

This venom will immobilize the prey, which will then allow the scorpion to set about dissecting it and eating it. As scorpions can only digest liquids, they will inject prey with enzymes that liquify it from the inside. They will then suck this liquid into their stomachs. Scorpions can take quite a long time to eat; depending on the size of the prey the entire process of eating and digesting can take hours.

Food Safety and Precautions

When maintaining a scorpion’s diet, it is crucial to ensure the safety of the food source. The prey you provide for your scorpion should be of high quality and free from any potential diseases or parasites. In fact, the health of your arachnidOpens in a new tab. companion largely depends on the health of the food it consumes.

Sourcing Safe and Healthy Prey

When purchasing insects or other small animals to feed your scorpion, it is advisable to source them from reliable, clean pet stores or reputable online suppliers. These suppliers should guarantee that their creatures are disease-free and are not exposed to harmful substances like pesticides or insecticides. You may be tempted to catch insects from your backyard; however, this isn’t recommended. Outside insects may have been in contact with pesticides or might carry parasites, both of which could be detrimental to your scorpion’s health.

Avoiding Disease Transmission

Scorpions are robust creatures, but they are not immune to all diseases. Certain pathogens can be transferred from the prey to the predator, potentially causing sickness. Therefore, it’s paramount to ensure the prey is clean and safe. As a precautionary measure, remove uneaten food after 24 hours to prevent the development of mold or bacteria. This practice also discourages the growth of mites and other pests within the enclosure that could cause distress or illness to your scorpion.

Precautions When Feeding

Remember, scorpions are not domesticated pets but wild animals that retain their predatory instincts. As such, when feeding them, use a pair of long tweezers or forceps to reduce the risk of being stung. Also, consider your scorpion’s size before introducing prey. A prey item that’s too large could pose a threat to your scorpion, resulting in injury or undue stress.

Signs of Overfeeding or Underfeeding


A well-fed scorpion should exhibit a healthy, consistent activity level. A common sign of underfeeding in scorpions is lethargy or decreased activity. If your pet isn’t moving around as much as usual, it might be because it’s not getting enough food. Another sign of undernutrition might be a noticeably thin or shrunken tail segment or metasoma. In some species, you might also see a shrinking or deflation in the body, particularly in the preabdomen (the front part of the scorpion’s body).

Keep in mind, though, that some species, especially the desert dwellers, are well adapted to food scarcity and might not show these signs. Also remember that refusal to eat can be normal during pre-molt periods.


Overfeeding, on the other hand, can lead to obesity. Obesity in scorpions manifests as a bloated or overly plump appearance, especially in the tail. In severe cases, the arachnid might have difficulty moving around its enclosure or even have trouble righting itself if turned over. Overfeeding might also lead to a faster growth rate than normal, particularly in juvenile scorpions, which can result in weaker exoskeletons and other health issues.

As a scorpion owner, it’s important to regulate feeding based on the scorpion’s species, age, and activity level. A good rule of thumb is to provide one appropriately-sized prey item two to three times a week for adults, and daily for young or highly active scorpions. Adjust as necessary based on the specific needs of your pet and the signs you observe.

The key is to strike a balance – providing enough nutrition for your scorpion to thrive, but not so much that it leads to obesity and its associated health issues. Always consult with a knowledgeable source or expert if you are unsure.

How Long Can Scorpions Go Without Food?

Scorpions have a wonderful ability that allows them to slow down their metabolism, which enables them to go for long periods without eating. In fact, in environments where food supplies are scarce, scorpions have been known to go for an entire year without feeding.

The remarkable thing about scorpions in the wild is that they can spring into action when they sense food is near. Even if they have been essentially hibernating for months at a time, they can swiftly catch and kill nearby prey by quickly raising their metabolism in that moment.

In captivity, scorpions could theoretically go without food for long periods too, although rarely for months at a time. They usually refuse food when they are approaching a molt; indeed, some scorpions will lose their appetite for weeks before molting. During this period, they may also become stationary or hide in a shelter within the enclosure.

Impact of Temperature and Season on Scorpion’s Eating Habits

Understanding the Role of Temperature

Much like other cold-blooded creatures, scorpions are highly influenced by their environment’s temperature. Their metabolic activities, including their appetite and digestion, are directly related to the temperature of their surroundings. As the temperature increases, you may notice an uptick in your scorpion’s eating behavior. The increased metabolic rate enhances their need for energy, resulting in more frequent feeding.

Conversely, as the temperature drops, their metabolism slows, and they enter a state similar to hibernation, known as diapause. This ability to dramatically slow their metabolic rate allows scorpions to endure long periods without food, often spanning months during colder seasons or unfavorable conditions.

Seasonal Changes and Their Impact

On top of temperature changes, scorpions are also tuned in with the seasonal shifts of their environment. Scorpions are primarily nocturnal hunters, and during the warmer seasons with longer daylight hours, their night-time hunting activities may increase. This could be especially observable in desert species, where the harsh summer daytime temperatures give way to more temperate nights.

The winter months tend to have the opposite effect, as the combination of lower temperatures and shorter daylight hours leads to decreased activity levels. During this time, scorpions may consume less food, reflecting their lower metabolic needs. It’s not uncommon to witness some scorpions eating very little, or even nothing, during the harshest part of the winter season.

Recognizing the Signs

For those keeping scorpions in captivity, it’s important to be observant of these temperature and season-dependent behaviors. Should your scorpion begin to eat less during a change of season or a drop in temperature, this could be a natural adjustment rather than a cause for alarm. Always ensure that the habitat conditions mimic, as closely as possible, the natural environments to which these amazing arachnids are adapted. In doing so, you will provide the optimal care needed for your scorpion to thrive.

Nutritional Needs of Scorpions

Macronutrients: Proteins and Fats

Scorpions, like many other arthropods, require a diet rich in proteins and fats. These macronutrients are crucial for their growth, reproduction, and overall health. They primarily obtain these nutrients from their prey, which mostly consist of insects, spiders, and occasionally small vertebrates like lizards or rodents. Consuming these live organisms provides them with essential amino acids and lipids necessary for their survival.

When it comes to their captive diet, many owners choose to feed their scorpions with crickets, mealworms, or beetles. It’s important to ensure that these feeder insects are nutritious themselves – a concept referred to as ‘gut loading’. In other words, before feeding these insects to your scorpions, feed these insects a nutrient-rich diet. This practice ensures your scorpions receive all the necessary nutrients indirectly.

Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals

While much less is known about the micronutrient requirements of scorpions, it’s fair to surmise that they need a certain level of vitamins and minerals to maintain optimal health. The key micronutrients that they might need include calcium for exoskeleton strength and various B vitamins for energy production and nerve function. They would typically acquire these micronutrients from their prey in a balanced natural diet.

However, in captivity, meeting these micronutrient needs can be more challenging. One common practice is to dust feeder insects with a supplement powder containing essential vitamins and minerals before feeding them to the scorpions. Be sure to consult with an expert to understand the best practices for supplementing your scorpion’s diet.

Do Not Forget Water

Scorpions, despite their common association with arid, desert environments, absolutely require access to water. This may seem counterintuitive given their typical habitats, but they obtain much of their water intake from the prey they consume. However, in a captive environment, it is vital to supplement this source of hydration by providing a constant source of clean, fresh water.

Importance of Hydration

Maintaining hydration is essential for a scorpion’s survival. Proper hydration aids in their digestion and nutrient absorption process, both of which are critical for their overall health. It also plays a crucial role in the molting process, especially for juvenile scorpions, as they require ample water to shed their exoskeletons successfully.

Setting up a Water Dish

To ensure that your scorpion can drink when it needs to, place a shallow dish of water in the enclosure. The dish should be shallow to prevent any potential drowning risks, as scorpions are not skilled swimmers. Choose a dish that’s sturdy and won’t be easily tipped over by your scorpion as it moves around its enclosure.

Safety Measures for Juveniles

If you are housing juvenile scorpions, you need to take extra precautions. Their smaller size increases their risk of accidental drownings. To prevent this, consider placing pebbles or small stones in the bottom of the dish. This setup ensures that even the smallest scorpion can safely access the water without the risk of falling in and being unable to climb out.

Humidity Control

Apart from hydration, water in the scorpion’s enclosure contributes to regulating humidity levels. Scorpions, particularly tropical species, require a certain level of humidity for their survival. The water dish significantly helps maintain the required humidity in the enclosure. However, remember that too much humidity can be detrimental, so keep an eye on the conditions to prevent excessive dampness.

Cleanliness is Key

Finally, it’s essential to keep the water dish clean and free from contamination. Regularly change the water and clean the dish to prevent the buildup of harmful bacteria that could compromise your scorpion’s health.

Water, in conclusion, is an essential element that should never be overlooked when caring for a scorpion. Proper hydration contributes significantly to their overall health, vitality, and longevity.

Key Takeaways

  1. Scorpions primarily feed on live prey such as insects, spiders, and small vertebrates.
  2. Commonly used prey for captive scorpions are crickets, mealworms, and beetles.
  3. The feeding frequency varies based on the scorpion’s species, age, and size.
  4. Scorpions can go for long periods without eating due to their ability to slow down their metabolism.
  5. Hydration is essential for a scorpion’s survival, and a shallow dish of clean water should be provided in the enclosure.
  6. Proper food safety precautions should be taken when sourcing prey for scorpions.


Q: What do scorpions eat in the wild?
A: In their natural habitat, scorpions are predatory creatures. They primarily feed on insects, spiders, and occasionally, small mammals like rodents, small snakes, and lizards. Some larger species of scorpions may even eat other smaller scorpions.

Q: What should I feed my pet scorpion?
A: In captivity, scorpions are typically fed a diet of insects, such as crickets, mealworms, or beetles. These are easy to source and provide the necessary nutrients for the scorpion. Occasionally, other types of worms or small spiders can be added for variety.

Q: How often should I feed my scorpion?
A: Scorpions do not need to eat every day. Adult scorpions can be fed a couple of crickets or mealworms two to three times a week. Juvenile scorpions require more frequent feeding, especially after molting.

Q: Can scorpions eat dead insects or do they need live prey?
A: Scorpions prefer live prey. They are hunters by nature and the movement of live prey triggers their hunting instincts.

Q: How do scorpions hunt and eat their food?
A: Scorpions hunt their prey using their pedipalps (front claws) to capture and crush smaller prey. For larger prey, they inject venom from the stinger at the tip of their tail to immobilize it before eating.

Q: How do scorpions drink water?
A: Scorpions absorb most of the water they need from their prey. However, in a captive environment, it is important to provide a shallow dish of water in their enclosure for them to drink from when needed.

Q: Can scorpions eat fruits and vegetables?
A: No, scorpions are strictly carnivorous and do not eat plant matter. Their diet consists entirely of animal prey.

Q: Do different species of scorpions have different diets?
A: While all scorpions are carnivorous, their specific diet can vary depending on their size and the natural prey available in their native habitats. Larger species of scorpions may be able to take down larger prey.

Q: What should I do if my scorpion refuses to eat?
A: Scorpions can refuse food for several reasons, such as pre-molting or due to stress. If your scorpion refuses food, try again after a day or two. However, if it continues to refuse food, it may be a sign of illness or stress and you should consult with a vet or an arachnid expert.

Q: How do I make sure my scorpion is getting the right nutrients?
A: Feeding your scorpion a variety of nutrient-rich insects can help ensure they get the right balance of nutrients. Insects can be ‘gut-loaded’ by feeding them a nutritious diet before offering them to the scorpion. Some owners also dust insects with a supplement powder for added nutrients.


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I am a content creator by profession but exotic animals are one of my great passions in life. Over the course of my adulthood, I have had the pleasure of looking after stick insects, terrapins, an Egyptian tortoise, giant African land snails, a crested gecko, a Chilean rose tarantula, a couple of curly-haired tarantulas, and a selection of millipedes, centipedes and worms!

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